Genetic structure of the indigenous chicken of Bhutan

Posted by Lokey Thapa on Aug-22-2014 6:58 AM

12. K. Nidup, Penjor, P. Dorji, Ratna B Gurung, P. Arasta and C. Moran, , SAARC Journal of Agriculture 08/2005; 3(2005):69-89

Effects of Aflatoxin mixed feed on Haematobiological profile in layer chicken. SAARC Journal of Agriculture 7(1), 85-90

Posted by Karma Dekar on Aug-05-2014 11:42 PM

Thapa, N.K., Manohar, M.B., MuraliManohar, B., Balachandran, C. and Sarathchandra, G. (2009).

The seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease in the sedentary livestock herds in four districts of Bhutan. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 100 (3-4). pp. 231-236.

Posted by Tshering on May-16-2014 4:09 AM

Abstract
AIMS: To identify livestock husbandry practices important for transmission of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the herds and villages of four regions in Bhutan. To consider using this information to enhance the current prevention and control programme, a consideration arising from the failure to control FMD in spite of a control programme in place. METHODS: Between March and May 2009, 383 livestock farmers originating from 80 villages in four districts of Bhutan were interviewed, using a structured questionnaire, about the livestock management practices and incidence of FMD in their herds. Multivariable logistic regression was used to quantify the risk factors that predicted the outcome variable 'farmer-diagnosed FMD in Bhutan'. RESULTS: Sixty-two percent (49/79) of the villages and 87/355 (24%) of herds surveyed had at least one outbreak of FMD within the 5 years preceding the survey. The odds of having FMD in a herd increased substantially (OR=39.2; p0.0001) when cattle mixed with herds from other nearby villages compared with those where mixing did not occur. Those cattle herds mixing with six or more other herds within the same village were 5.3 times (p0.0001) more likely to have had FMD than those mixed with fewer than six herds. Farmers who fed kitchen waste to cattle were 14.1 times (p0.0001), and those who sent their animals for grazing in the forest were 3.1 times (p=0.014), more likely to report FMD in their herds than those who did not. Farmers who kept their cattle always housed in a shed during the day (OR=0.033) or at night (OR=0.29) were less likely to report FMD than those who did not (p0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Mixing of cattle at grazing areas was identified as a risk factor for FMD. This indicates that spread from infected herds and villages, through close contact, could be an important source of disease for non-infected herds in Bhutan. Therefore, quarantining of early cases in affected herds or villages could reduce the spread of disease within and between villages. This study also highlights the potential role of feeding kitchen waste to cattle as a risk factor for FMD. The findings from this study could be considered for strengthening of the FMD control programme in Bhutan.

Serological and clinical surveillance studies to validate reported foot-and-mouth disease free status in Tsirang district of Bhutan.

Posted by Tshering on May-15-2014 5:25 AM

Serological and clinical studies were conducted between March 2009 and August 2010 to validate the foot-and-mouth disease free status of Tsirang district of Bhutan as determined by the country's passive surveillance system. Randomised (first survey) and targeted (third survey) samplings, with subsequent follow-up samplings (second and fourth), were conducted on FMD-susceptible animals to detect the disease at a design prevalence of 25% and 20% at the individual animal-level and village-level, respectively. Sera from cattle, goats, pigs, and sheep were tested for the presence of non-structural protein (NSP) antibodies using two commercial (PrioCHECK ® FMDV NS and CHEKIT ®-FMD-3ABC-bo-ov) and one in-house NSP kit (c-ELISA, AAHL, Australia). The overall seropositivity (all species) at the animal-level was 3% (95% CI: 1.7, 4.8) and 3.5% (95% CI: 2.1, 5.4), for the randomised and targeted surveys, respectively. Except for one goat from the first survey, none of the small ruminants and pigs had NSP antibodies. The seropositives from the first and targeted surveys were distributed among 13 and 16 of 20 villages sampled, respectively. All repeat testing from the initial seropositive animals and their herd mates, for both the first and third surveys, were negative in the NSP tests 6-8 months later. Using the hypergeometric exact probability formula for two-stage analyses, the results enabled rejection of the null hypothesis and supported conclusion that the population was free from disease at the minimum expected prevalence of 20% at the 95.53% and 99.46% confidence levels, for the randomised and targeted surveys, respectively. Clinical surveillance also showed absence of disease or clinical signs suggestive of FMD. The few seropositives were likely to be false positives due to factors such as imperfect specificities of the tests and possible NSP-residues in the vaccines. The study has paved the way for initiation of zoning approaches for the progressive control of FMD in Bhutan.